Corporate and Cyber Law update

Corporate and Cyber Law update.

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How much Protein do I need daily (Low sugar diet) Risk of less and more

It’s an important building block of a healthy diet. But  of the three macronutrients in food — protein, fat, and carbohydrates — protein may be the one you know least about.

How Much Is Enough?

Protein requirements are complicated because the amount we need changes with age.

  • Infants require about 10 grams a day.
  • Teenage boys need up to 52 grams a day.
  • Teenage girls need 46 grams a day.
  • Adult men need about 56 grams a day.
  • Adult women need about 46 grams a day.

One important exception is pregnant or lactating women. The recommended intake for them rises to 71 grams of protein a day.

Another way to look at protein requirements is as a percentage of calories. The Institute of Medicine recommends we get at least 10% and no more than 35% of calories from protein.

The Risks of Too Little Protein

That shortfall could mean trouble. Protein is important to many physiological functions from building and maintaining muscle and bone to keeping cells in good working order.

Recent studies suggest that protein makes a meal more satisfying, which in turn could help people maintain a healthy weight. Indeed, a 2005 study published in theAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that increasing protein from 15% to 30% of total calories — and reducing fat from 35% to 20% of calories — resulted in sustained weight loss.

Choosing the Healthiest Sources of Protein

A wide variety of foods — from meat, fish, and dairy to beans, whole grains, nuts, eggs, and vegetables  — contain protein. A meat-eater can easily get all the protein he or she needs. But even vegetarians can meet their requirements if they choose with a little care.

How healthy a protein-rich food is typically depends on what else it contains. For example:

  • Meat is one of the leading sources of protein in the American diet. Some meat is also loaded with saturated fat, which is unhealthy. The healthiest choice is lean meat low in saturated fat.
  • Fish is an excellent source of protein and the oils contained in fish help protect against heart disease.
  • Eggs are also abundant in protein, although they also contain dietary cholesterol — up to 185 mg for a large egg.
  • Plants such as beans and nuts are a particularly wise choice for protein since so many Americans fall short on fiber. Both beans and nuts are rich in fiber and plant-based phytochemicals that may help lower heart disease and cancer risk.
Food per 100 gram Protein Carbs Fat Calories
Almond Nuts 21.1g 6.9g 55.8g 2541kJ (614kcal)
Baked Beans 9.5g 22.1g 0.4g 130kcal
Bananas 1.2g 23.2g 0.3g 426kJ (100kcal)
Bread (wholemeal) 11.0g 39.1g 2.2g 935kJ (220kcal)
Broccoli 4.2g 3.2g 0.2g 133kJ (31kcal)
Carrots 0.6g 7.9g 0.3g 156kJ (37kcal)
Cheese 30.9g 0.1g 15.0g 1085kJ (260kcal)
Coconut 3.33g 15.23g 33.49g 354
Cottage Cheese 12.2g 4.5g 1.5g 340kJ (80kcal)
eggs 12.5g Trace 3.2g 627kJ (151kcal)
Goji Berries 12.3g 57.7g 0.3g 1205kJ (285kcal)
Milk (Semi Skimmed) 3.6g 4.8g 1.8g 209kJ (50kcal)
Milk (Whole) 3.3g 4.7g 3.6g 268kJ (64kcal)
Orange 1.1g 8.5g 0.1g 167kJ (39kcal)
Pasta 12.5g 73.0g 1.4g 1505kJ (355kcal)
Peanut Butter (Crunchy) 24.9g 10.1g 50.2g 2452kJ
Peas 5.9g 9.0g 0.9g 290kJ (70kcal)
Pizza (Pepperoni) 11.4g 28.0g 11.1g 1085kJ (260kcal)
Porridge oats 11.0g 60g 8.0g 1500 kJ/ (356 kcal)
Potatoes 2.1g 17.2g 0.2g 335kJ (80kcal)
Pumpkin Seeds 28.8g 15.2g 45.6g 2435kJ/586kcal
Rice (brown) 6.9g 74.0g 2.8g 1480kJ (350kcal)
soya beans 35.9g 14.8g 18.6g 1555kJ (375kcal)
Spinach 2.8g 1.5g 0.8g 103kJ (24kcal)
Sunflower Seeds 23.4g 18.6g 47.5g 2475kJ (600kcal)
Yogurt 4.5g 6.6g 11.0g 600kJ (145kcal)
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Spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis is a type of arthritis that affects the spine. Ankylosing spondylitis symptoms include pain and stiffness from the neck down to the lower back. The spine’s bones (vertebrae) may grow or fuse together, resulting in a rigid spine. These changes may be mild or severe, and may lead to a stooped-over posture. Early diagnosis and treatment helps control pain and stiffness and may reduce or prevent significant deformity.

What Are the Symptoms of Ankylosing Spondylitis?

The most common early symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis include:

  • Pain and stiffness. Constant pain and stiffness in the low back, buttocks, and hips that continue for more than three months. Spondylitis often starts around the sacroiliac joints, where the sacrum (the lowest major part of the spine) joins the ilium bone of the pelvis in the lower back region.
  • Bony fusion. Ankylosing spondylitis can cause an overgrowth of the bones, which may lead to abnormal joining of bones, called “bony fusion.” Fusion affecting bones of the neck, back, or hips may impair a person’s ability to perform routine activities. Fusion of the ribs to the spine or breastbone may limit a person’s ability to expand his or her chest when taking a deep breath.
  • Pain in ligaments and tendons. Spondylitis also may affect some of the ligaments and tendons that attach to bones. Tendonitis (inflammation of the tendon) may cause pain and stiffness in the area behind or beneath the heel, such as the Achilles tendon at the back of the ankle.

Ankylosing spondylitis is a systemic disease, which means symptoms may not be limited to the joints. People with the condition also may have feverfatigue, and loss of appetite. Eye inflammation (redness and pain) occurs in some people with spondylitis. In rare cases, lung and heart problems also may develop.

How Is Ankylosing Spondylitis Treated?

There is no cure for ankylosing spondylitis, but there are treatments that can reduce discomfort and improve function. The goals of treatment are to reduce pain and stiffness, maintain a good posture, prevent deformity, and preserve the ability to perform normal activities. When properly treated, people with ankylosing spondylitis may lead fairly normal lives. Under ideal circumstances, a team approach to treat spondylitis is recommended. Members of the treatment team typically include the patient, doctor, physical therapist, and occupational therapist. In patients with severe deformities, osteotomy and fusion can be done.

  • Physical and occupational therapy. Early intervention with physical and occupational therapy is important to maintain function and minimize deformity.
  • Exercise. A program of daily exercise helps reduce stiffness, strengthen the muscles around the joints and prevent or minimize the risk of disability. Deep breathing exercises may help keep the chest cage flexible. Swimming is an excellent form of exercise for people with ankylosing spondylitis.
  • Medications. Certain drugs help provide relief from pain and stiffness, and allow patients to perform their exercises with minimal discomfort. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) — such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and aspirin — are the most commonly used drugs for spondylitis treatment. In moderate to severe cases, other drugs may be added to the treatment regimen. Disease-modifying anitrheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as methotrexate, can be used when NSAIDs alone are not enough to reduce the inflammation, stiffness, and pain. In addition, relatively new drugs called biologics — Enbrel (etanercept), Humira (adalimumab), Remicade (infliximab), and Simponi (golimumab) — have been FDA-approved for treating ankylosing spondylitis. Also, the antidepressant Cymbalta has been approved for chronic back pain as well. Steroid injections into the joint or tendon may be helpful in some cases.
  • Surgery. Artificial joint replacement surgery may be a treatment option for some people with advanced joint disease affecting the hips or knees.

In addition, people with spondylitis are urged to not smoke or chew tobacco products because smoking aggravates the condition. Certainly, all of the other reasons why doctors discourage smoking also apply here as well.

People with spondylitis are encouraged to sleep on a firm mattress with the back straight. Placing large pillows under the head is discouraged, since it may promote neck fusion in the flexed position. Similarly, propping the legs up on pillows should be avoided because it may lead to hip or knee fusion in the bent position. Choose chairs, tables, and other work surfaces that will help avoid slumping or stooping. Armchairs are preferred over chairs without arms.

Since those with ankylosing spondylitis could easily hurt their rigid necks or backs, special care should be taken to avoid sudden impact, such as jumping or falling.

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Acute Renal (Kidney) Failure

What is acute renal failure?

Acute renal failure (also called acute kidney injury) means that your kidneys  have suddenly stopped working. Your kidneys remove waste products and help balance water and salt and other minerals (electrolytes) in your blood. When your kidneys stop working, waste products, fluids, and electrolytes build up in your body. This can cause problems that can be deadly.

What causes acute renal failure?

Acute renal failure has three main causes:

  • A sudden, serious drop in blood flow to the kidneys. Heavy blood loss, an injury, or a bad infection called sepsis can reduce blood flow to the kidneys. Not enough fluid in the body (dehydration) also can harm the kidneys.
  • Damage from some medicines, poisons, or infections. Most people don’t have any kidney problems from taking medicines. But people who have serious, long-term health problems are more likely than other people to have a kidney problem from medicines. Examples of medicines that can sometimes harm the kidneys include:
  • A sudden blockage that stops urine from flowing out of the kidneys.Kidney stones, a tumor, an injury, or an enlarged prostate gland can cause a blockage.

You have a greater chance of getting acute renal failure if:

What are the symptoms?

Symptoms of acute renal failure may include:

  • Little or no urine when you urinate.
  • Swelling, especially in your legs and feet.
  • Not feeling like eating.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Feeling confused, anxious and restless, or sleepy.
  • Pain in the back just below the rib cage. This is called flank pain.

Some people may not have any symptoms. And for people who are already quite ill, the problem that’s causing the kidney failure may be causing other symptoms.

How is acute renal failure diagnosed?

Acute renal failure is most often diagnosed during a hospital stay for another cause. If you are already in the hospital, tests done for other problems may find your kidney failure. If you’re not in the hospital but have symptoms of kidney failure, your doctor will ask about your symptoms, what medicines you take, and what tests you have had. Your symptoms can help point to the cause of your kidney problem. Blood and urine tests can check how well your kidneys are working. A chemistry screen can show if you have normal levels of sodium (salt), potassium, and calcium. You may also have an ultrasound. This imaging test lets your doctor see a picture of your kidneys.

How is it treated?

Your doctor or a kidney specialist (nephrologist) will try to treat the problem that is causing your kidneys to fail. Treatment can vary widely, depending on the cause. For example, your doctor may need to restore blood flow to the kidneys, stop any medicines that may be causing the problem, or remove or bypass a blockage in the urinary tract. At the same time, the doctor will try to:

  • Stop wastes from building up in your body. You may have dialysis. This treatment uses a machine to do the work of your kidneys until they recover. It will help you feel better.
  • Prevent other problems. You may take antibiotics to prevent or treat infections. You also may take other medicines to get rid of extra fluid and keep your body’s minerals in balance.

You can help yourself heal by taking your medicines as your doctor tells you to. You also may need to follow a special diet to keep your kidneys from working too hard. You may need to limit sodium, potassium, and phosphorus. A dietitian can help you plan meals.

Does acute renal failure cause lasting problems?

About half the time, doctors can fix the problems that cause kidney failure, and the treatment takes a few days or weeks. These people’s kidneys will work well enough for them to live normal lives. But other people may have permanent kidney damage that leads to chronic kidney disease. A small number of them will need to have regular dialysis or a kidney transplant. Older people and those who are very sick from other health problems may not get better. People who die usually do so because of the health problem that caused their kidneys to fail.

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Is Sex a forbidden territory after Heart Attack

Have sex when you’re ready

You may be afraid to resume sexual activity after a heart attack. But it’s not true that resuming sex after a heart attack can cause another heart attack, stroke, or sudden death. Talk with your doctor if you have any concerns. But you can resume sexual activity as soon as you feel ready for it.

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life After Heart Attack

Life After a Heart Attack

Many people survive heart attacks and live active, full lives. If you get help quickly, treatment can limit damage to your heart muscle. Less heart damage improves your chances for a better quality of life after a heart attack.

Medical Followup

After a heart attack, you’ll need treatment for coronary heart disease (CHD). This will help prevent another heart attack. Your doctor may recommend:

If you find it hard to get your medicines or take them, talk with your doctor. Don’t stop taking medicines that can help you prevent another heart attack.

Returning to Normal Activities

After a heart attack, most people who don’t have chest pain or discomfort or other problems can safely return to most of their normal activities within a few weeks. Most can begin walking right away.

Sexual activity also can begin within a few weeks for most patients. Talk with your doctor about a safe schedule for returning to your normal routine.

If allowed by State law, driving usually can begin within a week for most patients who don’t have chest pain or discomfort or other problems. Each State has rules about driving a motor vehicle following a serious illness. People who have complications shouldn’t drive until their symptoms have been stable for a few weeks.

Anxiety and Depression After a Heart Attack

After a heart attack, many people worry about having another heart attack. Sometimes they feel depressed and have trouble adjusting to new lifestyle changes.

Talk about how you feel with your health care team. Talking to a professional counselor also can help. If you’re very depressed, your doctor may recommend medicines or other treatments that can improve your quality of life.

Joining a patient support group may help you adjust to life after a heart attack. You can see how other people who have the same symptoms have coped with them. Talk with your doctor about local support groups or check with an area medical center.

Support from family and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones know how you feel and what they can do to help you.

Risk of a Repeat Heart Attack

Once you’ve had a heart attack, you’re at higher risk for another one. Knowing the difference between angina and a heart attack is important. Angina is chest pain that occurs in people who have CHD.

The pain from angina usually occurs after physical exertion and goes away in a few minutes when you rest or take medicine as directed.

The pain from a heart attack usually is more severe than the pain from angina. Heart attack pain doesn’t go away when you rest or take medicine.

If you don’t know whether your chest pain is angina or a heart attack, call 9–1–1.

The symptoms of a second heart attack may not be the same as those of a first heart attack. Don’t take a chance if you’re in doubt. Always call for help right away if you or someone else has heart attack symptoms.

Unfortunately, most heart attack victims wait 2 hours or more after their symptoms start before they seek medical help. This delay can result in lasting heart damage or death.

 

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Values of Blood Sugar in Normal, Pre-Diabetic and Diabetic person

 

Category of a person Fasting Value Post Prandial
Minimum Value Maximum Value Value 2 hours after consuming glucose
Normal 70 100 Less than 140

Early Diabetes

101 126 140 to 200
Established Diabetes More than 126 More than 200

* All values are in Milligrams
medindia

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